In conclusion, the paper authors highlighted substantial shifts away from the Russian language to Ukrainian, which “we interpret as users’ conscious choice towards a more Ukrainian (online) identity.”

“More than half of the predominately Russian-tweeting users shift towards Ukrainian, and a quarter of them even perform a hard-switch to Ukrainian, as the [all-out] war breaks out,” the authors wrote, adding: “This can be seen as citizens’ increasing opposition to Russia and a return to the country’s linguistic roots as well as a push towards a conscious self-definition of being Ukrainian.”

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