How much of US aid to Ukraine actually goes to Ukraine

US marines load M777 towed 155 mm howitzers at March Air Reserve Base to Ukraine, April 21, 2022. Photo by Marine Corps Cpl. Austin Fraley 

Analysis, Featured, International

Article by: Orysia Hrudka
Edited by: Sonia Maryn

Editor’s Note

Not all of the $54 billion that the US provided in congressional assistance bills to Ukraine during 2022 is actually for Ukraine – a substantial amount is directed outside the country. Of this $54 billion, $19 billion is assigned for security assistance directly to Ukraine for the 2022 fiscal year, ending 30 September. Of this $19 billion, $12.7 billion has already been sent to Ukraine. US aid has increased substantially during 2022, although it has been increasing since 2014, year over year.

We summarized the amounts from the 2022 Ukraine bills and compared the figures in the bills to those actually provided to Ukraine – not only for military (security) assistance but also for direct budgetary and humanitarian aid.

US military aid to Ukraine

Since 24 February 2022, the onset of Russia’s full-scale war against Ukraine, the US has provided $12.7 billion for security assistance to Ukraine (as of 28 August 2022). This is two-thirds of the sum envisioned by two acts approved in March and May for security assistance to Ukraine for the 2022 fiscal year, ending 30 September 2022.

The latest security assistance package to Ukraine, worth $2.98 billion, was announced on 24 August when Ukraine celebrated its 31st anniversary of Independence Day. Before that, a $1 billion package – the largest one at that time, – was approved on 8 August. That is, the US security assistance substantially accelerated this month.

During 2022, the aid to Ukraine is being provided under the Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2022, anticipating $13.6 billion and the Additional Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2022, anticipating $40 billion “in emergency funding to support the Ukrainian people and defend global democracy in the wake of Russia’s unprovoked attack on Ukraine.” The funding included in both acts, expiring 30 September 2022, envisions not only funding for Ukraine but also to the US, Europe, and other regions affected by Russia’s war against Ukraine.

Out of the $53.6 billion assigned in these two acts, $19 billion was anticipated for security assistance to Ukraine. An additional $4 billion was assigned to be split between Ukraine and other countries, including the NATO Eastern Flank (see below). So far, the US has provided approximately 12.7 billion in security assistance to Ukraine.

Generally speaking, there are three programs through which security assistance is provided directly to Ukraine: presidential drawdowns for the replenishment of the US stocks of equipment sent to Ukraine; the Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative (USAI), which provides assistance, including training, equipment, weapons, logistics support, supplies and services, salaries and stipends, sustainment, and intelligence support to the military and national security forces of Ukraine; as well as the Foreign Military Financing (FMF). FMF provides security assistance to Ukraine and countries affected by the situation in Ukraine, including the NATO Eastern Flank countries and other partners in the region.

Security Assistance to Ukraine in the Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2022

  • $3.5 billion to replenish US stocks of equipment sent to Ukraine through the presidential drawdown. The act also includes another $3 billion to drawdown.
  • $300 million in the Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative (USAI). This data is provided by the US Congressional Research Service, although it has not been singled out in the act itself.
  • $322 million were directed to Ukraine from the $650 million for the Foreign Military Financing (FMF).

That is, more than $4 billion were appropriated in this act for the fiscal year of 2022, ending September 2022.

Security Assistance to Ukraine in the Additional Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2022

  • $9.05 billion to replenish US stocks of equipment sent to Ukraine through presidential drawdown authority.
  • $6 billion for the Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative (USAI).
  • $4 billion for the Foreign Military Financing Program. While some of this sum was definitely sent directly to Ukraine, it is not clear what proportion of it, because FMF provides support for Ukraine and also countries “affected by the situation in Ukraine, including NATO Eastern Flank countries”.

That is, this act envisions from $15 to $19 billion, depending on how much will be provided for Ukraine in the frame of FMF, in security assistance to Ukraine.

us aid to ukraine military

72nd Aerial Port Squadron cargo supervisor, prepares to palletize equipment bound for Ukraine at Dover Air Force Base, Del., March 8, 2022. Source: US Air Force

With the approaching end of the 2022 fiscal year, it is yet unclear if the funds envisioned for 2022 will be redirected for the next year or will be lost.

It is also unclear how the funding will be coordinated with a lend-lease bill, which waives a number of requirements to the president’s authority to lend or lease defense articles and is generally similar to the procedure of the simplified assistance procedure through presidential drawdown.

Mark Cancian, a senior adviser with the CSIS International Security Program, believes that President Biden may rely primarily on drawdown authority because lend-lease is based on an assumption that the equipment given to Ukraine will eventually be returned to the United States.

US military aid to Ukraine since 2014

From 2014, when Russia first invaded Ukraine, to 1 August 2022, the US has provided some $11 billion in security assistance. Since the beginning of the Biden Administration, the US has committed approximately $9.8 billion in security assistance to Ukraine, $9.1 billion of which has been sent to Ukraine since the start of Russia’s 2022 full-scale war against Ukraine.

Prior to the full-scale war Russia initiated in February 2022, the two primary accounts for security aid for Ukraine were

  • the US State Department Foreign Military Financing (FMF) Program (22 USC. §2763) and
  • the US Department of Defense (DOD) Ukraine Security Assistance Initiative, USAI program (P.L. 114-92, §1250)

Since 24 February 2022, presidential drawdown authority constitutes most of U.S security assistance to Ukraine (more than half was anticipated in the acts, and almost all of the assistance already sent to Ukraine is done at the cost of the replenishing of U.S stocks through the presidential drawdowns).

 

How $53.6 billion, assigned for 2022 Ukraine emergency assistance, is distributed

Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2022 and Additional Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2022 allocate $53.6 billion for the 2022 fiscal year to support Ukraine and other countries affected by Russia’s war against Ukraine.

  • $19 billion is allocated for security assistance to Ukraine, including the replenishment of the equipment of U.S stocks, which was sent to Ukraine. $7 billion is provided for the US European Command; $1.1 billion for other military needs in the US, like faster missile production in the US, and munitions procurement to increase the US stocks; and $4 billion in the FMF are to be divided between Ukraine and NATO Eastern Flank or other countries.
  • $8 billion is for global food security and International Disaster Assistance “to provide emergency food assistance to people around the world suffering from hunger as a result of the conflict in Ukraine and other urgent humanitarian needs of populations and communities inside Ukraine.”
  • $8.7 billion in the Economic Support Fund for Ukraine is for the direct budgetary support and to counter human trafficking.
  • $2.65 billion are for Ukrainian refugees arriving in other countries
  • $2 billion is for other programs, either not in Ukraine or for Ukraine and other countries, and another $1 billion is for various initiatives in Ukraine. The detailed distribution can be found in the Acts (1,2)

US direct budgetary support to Ukraine

As of 8 August 2022, the US government has provided $8.5 billion in direct budgetary support, which allows the Government of Ukraine to maintain essential functions, including electricity, salaries, and social services. Of this, $3 billion is still to be distributed in August and $1.5 billion later, most probably in September. The last package was announced on 8 August.

That is, almost all of the sum promised for budgetary support for Ukraine ($8.7 billion) has already been sent to Ukraine, unlike the security assistance, of which half has been sent so far.

war Ukrainian Parliament

Ukrainian Parliament. Source: aa.com

US humanitarian assistance to Ukraine

The US government has contributed $1.5 billion of humanitarian assistance to “people in Ukraine and those who have fled to neighboring countries” since Russia’s full-scale war against Ukraine on 24 February. According to USAID reports, the assistance reached 11 million people, providing health care, mental health care, and shelter and cash assistance to Ukrainians directly impacted by the war, especially people who moved to other countries because of the war.

USAID has been working with humanitarian partners in the country and region and was also “ramping up critical development assistance to respond to cyber attacks and threats to the energy sector, countering disinformation, supporting small businesses and the agriculture sector, documenting human rights violations, meeting essential health needs, and ensuring the continued functioning of local and national government entities.

Related

Edited by: Sonia Maryn
Ukraine needs independent journalism. And we need you. Join our community on Patreon and help us better connect Ukraine to the world. We’ll use your contribution to attract new authors, upgrade our website, and optimize its SEO. For as little as the cost of one cup of coffee a month, you can help build bridges between Ukraine and the rest of the world, plus become a co-creator and vote for topics we should cover next. Become a patron or see other ways to support. Become a Patron!

Tags: ,