A short guide to the linguicide of the Ukrainian language | Infographics

linguicide

 

2017/02/22 • Analysis & Opinion, History, Infographics

During the XVII-XX ct, Ukraine was split up between various empires and states. The ruling regime of each of them tried to assimilate Ukrainians and prevent their self-determination by destroying what made them different: their language and culture.

Overall, there have been 60 prohibitions on the Ukrainian language in the 337 years that Ukraine was under foreign rule.

They aimed to eradicate the Ukrainian language by inhibiting or prohibiting its use in education, official use, and the print.

Most of these policies contributed to the forced Russification of Ukrainians in the Russian Empire and the USSR.  

Today, Ukraine grapples to overcome the negative legacy of these policies and undo the centuries of repressions, as Russia plays on the dividing lines it created in Ukraine.

Here are some of the most important prohibitions of the Ukrainian language by the regimes ruling over Ukraine.

Graphic by Ganna Naronina. Click to enlarge.

Graphic by Ganna Naronina. Click to enlarge.

XVII century

1627 – Muscovite Tsar Mikhail, based on the petition by the Moscow Patriarch Filaret, orders to burn all copies of the “Uchitel” Bible published in Ukraine by Kyrylo Stavrovetskyi.
1690 –  The Russian Orthodox Church condemns and anathematizes “Kyivskiya Noviya Knigi” of Petro Mohyla, Kyrylo Stavrovetskyi, S. Polotskyi, L. Baranovych, A. Radzivilovskyi and others,  as well as all Ukrainian-language Christian publications of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.
1696 – The Polish Sejm (of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) orders to implement the Polish language in courts and institutions of Ukrainian lands under Polish rule.

XVIII century

1720 – Muscovite Tsar Peter I orders to ban book printing in Ukrainian and to eliminate of Ukrainian texts from church scriptures
1729 – Russian Empire. Tsar Peter II orders to rewrite all government orders from Ukrainian into Russian
1731 – Russian Empire. Tsarina Anna Ivanovna orders to confiscate Ukrainian printed books, and to “teach sciences in our own Russian language.” In the secret instruction to the head of Ukraine Prince O. Shakhovskyi in 1734 she ordered to by all means to prevent Ukrainians from marrying Poles and Belorussians, “and to artificially engage them with Russians.”
1763 – Russian Empire. Empress Catherine II orders to ban teaching in Ukrainian in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,
1769 – Russian Empire. Sinode of the Russian Patriarchal Church prohibits printing and using the Ukrainian bukvar, an alphabet book.
1775 – Russian Empire. Empress Catherine II orders to ruin the Zaporizhya Sich, Ukraine’s remaining military leadership structure, and the closure of Ukrainian schools in Kozak chancelleries.
1789 – Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Education Committee of the Polish Sejm orders to close all Ukrainian schools.

XIX century

1817 – Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Polish language is introduced in all national schools of Western Ukraine
1832 – Russian Empire. The education in Russian Empire-controlled Ukraine west of the Dnipro river is reorganized on pan-imperial orders using the Russian language for teaching
1847 – Russian Empire. The 
Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius, a political organization seeking autonomy, is banned, leading to an increase in the persecution of the Ukrainian language and culture, and a ban on the best masterpieces of Ukrainian-language authors Shevchenko, Kulish, Kostomarov and others.
1859 – Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Ministry of Religions and Sciences of Austro-Hungary in Eastern Galicia and Bukovina attempts to replace the Ukrainian Cyrillic alphabet with a Latin one.
1862 – Russian Empire. Free Sunday Ukrainian schools for adults are forced to close.
1863 – Russian Empire. Valuev circular prohibits giving a censure permit to print Ukrainian spiritual and popular education literature: “there is and can not be any separate Maloros [“little Russian”, i.e. Ukrainian] language”
1864 – Russian Empire. The Statute regarding primary school is adopted, according to which education should only be carried out in Russian.
1869 – Austro-Hungarian Emire. Polish language is established as the official language of education and administration of Eastern Galicia
1870 – Russian Empire. Russian Minister of Education D. Tolstoi explains that “the end goal of the education of all foreigners has to be Russification.”
1876 – Rusian Empire. The Ems Ukaz of Alexander II prohibits printing and importing from outside the country any Ukrainian language literature, as well as the bans Ukrainian theatrical performances and printing of Ukrainian texts on sheet music, including national songs.
1881 – Russian Empire. Ban on teaching in public schools and making church sermons in the Ukrainian language is adopted.
1884 – Russian Empire. Alexander III bans all Ukrainian theatrical performances in the Ukrainian provinces.
1888 – Russian Empire. Alexander III bans using Ukrainian in all official institutions and baptizing people with Ukrainian names.
1892 – Russian Empire. Ban on translating books from Russian to Ukrainian adopted.
1895 – Russian Empire. Main Press Department prohibits publishing children’s books in the Ukrainian language.

XX century

1908 – Russian Empire. Four years after the Russian Academy of Sciences acknowledges Ukrainian as a language (!), the Senate announces that Ukrainian-language cultural and education activities are harmful to the empire.
1910 – Russian Empire. Stolipin’s government orders to close all Ukrainian cultural associations, publishing houses, bans lecturing in Ukrainian, bans creating any non-Russian clubs.
1911 – Russian Empire. The VII Dvorian Assembly in Moscow issues a decree regarding exclusively Russian-language education and the unacceptability of using any other languages in the schools of the Russian empire.
1914 – Russian Empire. Ban on celebrating prominent Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko’s 100th birthday issued; Tsar Nikolai II issues ban on Ukrainian press.
1914, 1916 – Russian Empire. Russification Campaigns were held in Western Ukraine. The Ukrainian language, education, church were once again prohibited.
1922 – USSR. A part of the leadership of the Central Committee of the Russian and Ukrainian (bolshevik) Communist Party proclaims their “theory” of two cultures fighting in Ukraine – the urban (Russian) and the village (Ukrainian) cultures, in which the former must win.
1924 – Polish Republic. Order is issued to limit the use of Ukrainian in administrative institutions, courts, education on lands governed by Poland.
1924 – Romanian Kingdom. Order is issued obliging all “Romanians” who have “lost their mother tongue” to educate their children in Romanian schools only.
1925 – Polish Republic. The Ukrainian “secret” university in Lviv is finally shut down.
1926 – USSR. Stalin sends letter to “Comrade Kaganovich and other members of the Politbureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine allowing to fight against “national inclinations” and to begin to persecute the activists of the USSR’s initial Ukrainization policies.
1933 – USSR. Stalin sends telegram to terminate Ukrainization.
1933 – Romanian Kingdom. The ministry order of 31 December 1929, allowing several hours of Ukrainian language a week in schools with a majority of Ukrainian students, is abolished.
1934 – Romanian Kingdom. The Ministry of Education of Romania issues special order to fire all Ukrainian teachers which demanded the return of the Ukrainian language to schools “for animosity to the state and the Romanian people.”
1938 – USSR. The Council of People’s Commissars and the Central Committee of the Communist Party issues decree “Regarding the compulsory learning of the Russian language in the schools of national republics and regions.”
1947 – Poland. Operation Wisla is held, during which a part of Ukrainians from ethnic Ukrainian lands are relocated and intermixed with Poles in Western Poland in order to speed up their “polonizaation.”
1958 – USSR. Article 20 of the Basis of USSR’s Main Law on national education was amended to provide the free choice of language of learning; learning of all languages except Russian (which was compulsory) was by choice of the students’ parents.
1960-1980 – Poland and Romania. Ukrainian schools are massively closed.
1970 – USSR. Order is issued that dissertations can only be written in Russian.
1972 – USSR. Communist Party bans anniversary celebrations of the museum dedicated to prominent Ukrainian writer and founder of the literary language Kotlyarevskyi in Poltava.
1973 – USSR. Anniversary celebrations of Kotlyarevskyi’s masterpiece “The Eneid” are banned.
1972 – USSR. Communist Party issues order “Regarding the preparations for the 50th anniversary of the creation of the USSR,” in which for the first time the “creation of a new historical community – the Soviet people” is proclaimed, marking an official de-nationalisation course.
1978 – USSR. The Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Council of Ministers of the USSR issue order “Regarding the means of further improvement of learning and teaching the Russian language in Soviet republics” (“Brezhnev document”).
1983 – USSR. The Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Council of Ministers of the USSR issue order “Regarding additional measures in improving the learning of the Russian language in public schools and other learning institutions of Soviet republics” (“Andropov order”), which in particular increases the salaries of the teachers of the Russian language and literature by 16%. The collegium of the Ministry of Education of the Ukrainian Socialist Republic issues directive “regarding additional measures of improving the learning or the Russian language in public schools, pedagogical learning institutions, pre-school and post-school institutions of the republic,” aimed at increasing Russification.
1984 – USSR. The Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Council of Ministers of the USSR issue order “Regarding the further improvement of public middle school education of the youth and the improvement of working conditions of public schools” including Russification policies.
1984 – USSR. Russian language teachers start to get 15% salary raise over Ukrainian language teachers in Ukraine.
1984 – USSR. The Ministry of Culture of the USSR issues order regarding the transfer of all documentation in all museums of the USSR to the Russian language.
1989 – USSR. The Central Committee of the Communist Party issues decree “regarding the legal fixation of the Russian language as the official national language.”
1990 – USSR. Law regarding the languages of the people of the USSR is approved, in which Russian is deemed the official language.

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  • MichaelA

    all those attempts
    and all failed
    they must have been really frightened of the language

    • RedSquareMaidan

      Slava Ukraini!

      • Oknemfrod

        Героям слава!

  • Dirk Smith

    Incentive to learn the language.

  • Oknemfrod

    The article, while containing good information about the suppression of Ukrainian by a number of governments, is nevertheless misnamed. All those policies were aimed at limiting Ukrainian language usage and forcing native Ukrainian speakers to use another language.

    A real attempt at Ukrainian *linguicide*, though, had not been made before the Soviets in 1933, when they appointed a commission to change and poison the *language itself* in order to russify it, remove “the barrier between Ukrainian and Russian”, and codify the changes in the alphabet, dictionaries, handbooks, printed works, media, etc. under the banner of “fighting Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism”.

    The commission headed by the odious Andriy Khvylja (nee Olinter) “reworked” the language and in 1933 issued new rules, soon published as a separate book. The overtly stated goal of the commission was this: “… виправлення стосувалися ліквідації усіх правил, що орієнтували українську мову на польську та чеську буржуазні культури, перекручували сучасну українську мову, ставили бар’єр між українською та російською мовами”. In other words, “… the fixes were related to the removal of all the rules which oriented Ukrainian towards the Polish and Czech bourgeois cultures, twisted modern Ukrainian and set a barrier between Ukrainian and Russian”. As a result, not only hundreds of intrinsically Ukrainian words, expressions, etc. were thrown out, but the orthography, morphology, and grammar in general were altered in order to make the language less distinct and “closer” to Russian.

    The harm thus done to the language, particularly in Central and Eastern Ukraine, was enormous, since thenceforth only the “official” version was allowed into print, media, and the schools. When the national revival began during/after the “perestroika”, millions of Ukrainians (including myself) were surprised to discover that the language they were taught (where it was still taught), read, and listened to resembled real Ukrainian as much as a guy on life support resembles the same guy when he used to be an elite athlete. Reviving the language from this linguicide was a Herculean labor continuing to this days against vehement opposition and adepts of the Russian language “superiority” – supported and funded by the Kremlin.

    • Andrew Chmil

      VERY interesting!

      Didn’t know that the Ruski scumbags did “ALL THAT!”
      Very impressive!
      Lot of effort being scumbags I see.

      THAT they can do, eh?
      Talk about being — “all fk’d up!”

      And all this “Ruski language ‘superiority'” is DRILLED into their Russo-mongolian heads!

      They are pretty stupid & programmed for the most part as you know.

      So that even in America, a Ruski have astonished me when I said I’m a Uke & speak it —- he, without ANY — NONE AT ALL — embarrassment, said “that’s low!” — !?!?! — WTF!!! I wasn’t used to Ruskie at that time you see :)
      Their USUALLY LOW CLASS women are NOT any better in this regard, to so inform you, but I suspect you are already quite aware.

      Btw — I save a lot of your comments on differences between Ukie & Ruskie…. such as no Future Perfect in Russian & the like… Stuff like that I find very interesting.

      So do Ukes still use that BS “Unification Alphabet” ??
      I know they did that (still no mjahke znak??) … I didn’t know they ALSO screwed up Ukie grammar….

      Hmm… none of those changes would be an “improvement” I am very sure… Merely try to make us like “them” … & that VERY NASTY, CLUMSY & somehow PRIMITIVE sounding (to my ears) sh*t they BARK at you.

      There IS a thing called “psycolinguistics” btw:
      https://www.google.com/search?q=psycolinguistics&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8

      • Oknemfrod

        Thankfully, the alphabet has been restored, and the vocabulary, as it had existed before 1933, religitimized. From what I hear and read, it’s used rather actively in print and media, too, and has made its resurgence into the everyday speech. Moreover, Ukrainian speakers seem to have become more self-conscious with their usage and careful to avoid russisms, which is not simple to do in the Central-East polluted with ubiquiutous presence of Russian and Surzhik.

        Thanks for the psycholinguistics link – haven’t been aware of it.

        p.s. It’s actually the single-word Future Imperfect (майбутній час недоконаного виду) that is absent from Russian where it can be formed only with the Future form of the auxiliary verb “to be”. E.g. “We will live” in Russian can be formed only as “Мы будем жить”, whereas in Ukrainian, both as “Ми житимемо” (one word for “will live”) and “Ми будемо жити” (“to be” in the Future + Infinitive). Another tense Russian doesn’t have is Plus Quam Perfectum (Past Perfect in English) called in Ukrainian “давноминулий час” and indicating an action finished before some moment in the past, e.g. “Я був читав”.

        • Andrew Chmil

          Very cool !!

          “Moreover, Ukrainian speakers seem to have become more self-conscious
          with their usage and careful to avoid russisms, which is not simple to
          do in the Central-East polluted with ubiquitous presence of Russian and
          Surzhik.”

          Yeah …. a lifetime habit of that sh*t…

          I have noticed that as well … couple dum @sses from Kyiv … said “da” to me — I HATE THAT!! — So I looked at the “da b*tch” & repeated it … with a tone… so she then said “tak”. :)
          That sheedniak thrash you know… :)

          Good info…
          THANKS!!

          So the next Troll — LIKE THAT RUSKA CREATURE — who didn’t stay long on the Ukie sites — that — EXPLAINED — & ENLIGHTENED ME with her Ruska pizda — in very good English, “..Ukrainian is a peasant language…. ” etc. hemno.. Hmm…

          Wonder if it wasn’t the “LYING Larissa TROLL” — from Ukraine Today USA that you talk to. that EXPLAINED that Crimea is Russian & wouldn’t talk about that when slavko REPEATEDLY asked her about it 😉

          • Oknemfrod

            This “da” sounds so off-key in otherwise clean Ukrainian speech that it makes me squirm. As far as the “peasant language” goes, I find it funny when Russians bring it up. First, it’s idiotic on its face, as clean Ukrainian is universally spoken in many large cities. Second, every genuine language stems from rural roots, and as ordinary people speak it, it develops naturally, becoming richer and more diverse. Unlike ivory tower constructs (which is what Russian is), it gets imbued with collective wisdom of the people and acquires more efficient forms of communication impossible to create artificially. Hence Ukrainian has hundreds of shortcut adverbs (like “торік”, “чимдуж”, “щомить”) absent from Russian, where they in their stead have to use a combo of three words to express the same.

          • Andrew Chmil

            “This “da” sounds so off-key in otherwise clean Ukrainian speech that it makes me squirm. ”

            Hmm… so even you too eh? :)
            Hmm… yeah … “sounds so off-key” … Good way of putting it.

            BTW — what DID that Negro exactly do to so “revolutionize” that BS Ruski language of theirs? — They all SWOON at that BS …. all he did that was any good, from what I’ve read, (in translation) was to write a poem about his Ruski-African penis … & that wasn’t so great either.

            You gave me mo’ material to cut & save 4 later study … Why I got that “future tense” thing wrong … in a rush … doing what I do very well — with — those I disagree with …

            Making war & giving out THE ALARM — on that most “clever” Ukraine Today USA — mole & troll site — so “clever” they are …. such WARMTH & JOCULARITY!!! I wanna share!!! :( — But they CHANGE & accuse even others of being me! :(

            I just wanna be their Ukie friend! ;(
            The foookin’ faqqots!!! (D Y K E S too! — LAPPING EACH OTHER I HAVE NO DOUBT!!!)

            The Larissa kurva esp.!
            (what a surprise!)

          • Oknemfrod

            “That Negro” actually did a lot. There’s no doubt he was a tremendous talent acknowledged by people like Franko, Ukrainka, et al. (Franko had translated all his dramas and many other works into Ukrainian). He made the stodgy and awkward lab creation bearing heavy hallmarks of the Church Slavonic simpler, lighter, and closer to a natural language – more Ukrainian-like, if you will. He introduced that simpler, more natural style both in prose and poetry, influenced many others, who pretty soon started writing similarly (Lermontov is a prime example), and thus reformed language then started proliferating downward and horizontally through the system of education.

            This is as opposed to Ukrainian, which was completely natural and ready-to-use to begin with. Thus Ukrainian authors – Kotliarevsky and Shevchenko first – didn’t have to revolutionize anything and simply used their mother tongue. Modern Ukrainian differs very little from Ukrainian used to write “Eneida” in 1798 or “Natalka-Poltavka” a decade later. But if you read anything published in Russian around that period and compare it with post-Pushkin literature, they sound as if written in two different languages.

          • Andrew Chmil

            ” He made the stodgy and awkward lab creation bearing heavy hallmarks of
            the Church Slavonic simpler, lighter, and closer to a natural language –
            more Ukrainian-like, if you will. He introduced that simpler, more
            natural style both in prose and poetry, influenced many others, who
            pretty soon started writing similarly (Lermontov is a prime example)”

            Hmm… excellent summation. Thanks!

            So… besides screwing “noble” Russian ‘ho’s … given that blacks & whites are endowed the same (yeah! The BBC stuff is BS) — both scientifically — & by personal report… So the negro, besides doin’ the above, “be a smokin’ & jokin’ & rapping & tokin’ & the ho’s thought it so cool…

            Of course da brudder revolutionize the language!!!
            An English woman, who learned Ruskie very well I gathered, & explored Russia for years … described Russian as “clunky”.

            I have heard others — non-Ruski — say it’s “archaic.”

            So yeah, yeah… da brudder…

            OK… I read his BS “The Captain/s Daughter” thing in translation … The Ukie sheedniak teaching the course appeared surprised to find that *everyone* thought it was sh*t….

            Lermentov was merely boring…. Odd to hear Ruski swooning over that sh*t.

            Ruska woman agreed —- with some difficulty — that yeah … his prose not so hot … but said his poetry was good… Don’t know…

            The few Ukie poems you gave (NOT YOUR HEMNO! :)
            was — IMHO — POWERFUL & MOVING STUFF I MUST SAY!
            WOW!!!

            Impressive!

          • Oknemfrod

            Undoubtedly, Pushkin’s prose is not exactly his claim to fame compared to his poetry. However, one needs to compare it with what had been written before him to see the difference – not easy because one would first need to find what to read. If you ask even a relatively well educated Russian to name any prominent prose writer before Pushkin, you’ll get a blank stare, and that’s because there are none. Any general course of Russian prosaic literature essentially starts with Pushkin’s prose. Lermontov actually improved upon it, and his most well-known novel, A Hero of Our Time, is both more modern language-wise and entertaining – if you can dig the emotions of the era (Mary swooning from being kissed on the cheek, Pechorin killing a friend on a duel for what nowadays wouldn’t raise a brow, etc.). Another indication that Pushkin was purposely changing the language is the difference between his printed prose and private correspondence during the same period – the latter is still stodgy and rather hurtful to read.

            Note that Pushkin wrote his first prose in 1825, and even in his last prosaic piece, Dubrovsky, the language still wasn’t quite close to the modern Russian. Now that begs the question who and what had been there in Ukrainian prose before Shevchenko, and it’s an easy one – Ivan Kotliarevsky and his Natalka-Poltavka written in 1819. Comparing it to the Russian of the day, it’s rather astonishing to read a play written 200 years ago and find out that it was written in the thoroughly modern Ukrainian language. However, it has a simple explanation: Kotliarevsky did not, nor needed to, reform anything – he just took the ready-to-serve language exactly the way it was spoken in the Poltava region by common folk and put it to paper (just like he did it for The Eneid 21 years ere. Take any Russian prose of the day, and the modern Russians would scarcely be able to read it, let alone speak the same argot. It’s both entertaining and interesting that in the course of the play, Kotliarevsky manages to mock its antagonist (pan Voznyi) by making him intersperse his speech with russisms and thus making it stand in sharp contrast with the rest speaking the native tongue (питомою мовою). There’s a splendid movie made in 1978 by the Ukrainian TV Studio based on the namesake operetta by Lysenko:

            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFII3_BuUS8&t=3s

            The richness, wholesomeness, and modernity of the language spoken by the characters is truly amazing.

          • MichaelA

            :Pushkin huh…
            everyone knows educated russians speak french
            especialy at the tsars court

          • Oknemfrod

            Yes. In fact, in the first half of 1880’s French was the first language used by the Russian top caste, Pushkin himself included, and they used to learn it as children from live-in native French speakers. Many French traveled to Russia specifically to make gobs of money this way (the hostilities of 1812 notwithstanding).

          • Andrew Chmil

            yeah …. it was said that Russian nobility spoke Russian EXACTLY the same as the lowest peasants …. probably a lot of “yop tvoy mat!!”
            all the time I imagine :)))

          • Andrew Chmil

            Good disquisition! :)
            Thank you!

            Btw?? — The Ruski speaking English woman as per above??
            Eventually, she wound up in Ukieland, married & divorced a Uke… & is now making a point of seeing her “English daughter” take Ukie lessons & is a big-time supporter of Ukieland in the UK.

            Interesting… She now, divorce not withstanding, prefers things all things Ukie to Russian.

            Food, etc.. etc…

          • Oknemfrod

            Stands to reason – it’s often easier for an outsider to see things right.

          • Andrew Chmil

            It seemed to surprise her as well…. she did mention how, when she was in Siberia, was staying with one family, the mother was Ukie, and met “.. the ONLY Ukrainian woman I ever met that couldn’t make decent borscht!”

            She prided herself on her borscht etc… :)

            She made it in a strange way … but all the Ukes liked it & some said it was better than their mother’s so….

            What do you do for Ukie food in FL?
            Or do you get “CARE packages” from Philly? :)

            Any polak stores there or what?

          • Oknemfrod

            >What do you do for Ukie food in FL?Any polak stores there or what?<

            Unfortunately, not in Jax or near it. Would like to have a few locally if for nothing else then for the splendid Polish charcuterie, very close in nature to Ukrainian.

          • Andrew Chmil

            “Actually, I do make my own borshch myself (using grass-fed beef and
            marrow bones I get from a farmer in Starke) – and even sort of take
            pride in the result, as it’s well-known and appreciated in my circle
            around here. ”

            Hmm…. :)

            “No, no packages from Philly.”

            NO KOBASSA FOR YOU!!!!

            “Unfortunately, not in Jax or near it. Would like to have a few locally
            if for nothing else then for the splendid Polish charcuterie, very close
            in nature to Ukrainian.”

            Had to look that up! :))
            https://www.google.com/search?q=charcuterie&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8

            Yeah …polaks do that too…
            Bit of an art…

            Hmm… It seems there are a LOT more “moles” around than I thought…

            “Alex George” it appears fairly strongly to me …

            J’accuse! :)))

            The monhols put in a LOT OF TIME & $$$ INTO SUCH BS!
            They are truly psychopathic!

            I’m serious!

            Unfortunately being in proximity to such can have deleterious effects!

          • Andrew Chmil

            Got any salo?

          • Oknemfrod

            Ще б пак! Авжеж маю. Тут неподалiк від мене є одна місцева крамниця типа “European Deli”, що купляє копчене сало на продаж з коптильні десь в Атланті. Кажуть, начебто то є спільний українсько-польський бізнес, але якби там не було, сало пречудове. Один недолік – як почнеш його їсти, зупинитися важко, бо смачне, як чорт.
            Дякую за посилання з пісеньками.

          • MichaelA

            others have tried writing ukrainian to andrew
            he never responds

          • Oknemfrod

            If you mean responds in Ukrainian, it’s true, I haven’t seen him do that indeed. But he does respond in English when I write in Ukrainian – at least to me ;). Maybe, he aims at reaching a wider audience … no big deal, I can understand that.

          • MichaelA

            see if he is responding to what you wrote
            the times i have seen to other people he doesnt
            anyway whatever

          • Andrew Chmil

            Really? :)

            LYING RUSSO-MONGOLOIDOL POS!!!

            ” R’tfu ! ” — I spit in your Finno-Ugric Mongoloidol MOLE-TROLL FACE!!!

            Faqqot!
            Ruski!
            RAT EATER!

          • MichaelA

            blah blah blah
            who cares about your insults?
            but you dont know any ukrainian do you
            just as you dont write positive things about ukraine

          • Andrew Chmil

            “who cares about your insults?”

            YOU DO!!! :)

            YTF do you DEFEND ***LYING** RUSKI “MOLE-TROLLS” MOST VIGOROUSLY?
            & REPEAT YOURSELF TO THE POINT OF **LYING**? :)))

          • Andrew Chmil

            De nada! :)

          • Oknemfrod

            Treba ;).

          • Dr. Preobrazhensky

            Just checking up on people in my “following” category. Your posts are so interesting to read, thank you.

          • Oknemfrod

            Much obliged, my friend, you are too kind.

      • Andrew Chimilewsky’s Daddy!

        ** ANDREW CHMILEWSKY FAKE ACCOUNT ANDREW CHMIL** – You are my beyatch… I gave you that name CHMIL and can change it any time you ** WIFE RAPIST** … **CHILD ABUSER** ……………… *** UKRAINIAN SCUMBAG*** ….. ** NO HONOR OR SHAME**

        • Andrew Chmil

          hiding your posting profile — eh you BRAVE ***SERBIAN*** LYING COWARD & MORAL ***SERB*** SCUM & MENTAL CASE ;))

          Go post the exact above12 X more like a good little MENTAL CASE ON MEDS!! :)

          Does your little ***SERB*** head still hurt? 😉

          Been inpatient for awhile, not that long ago …. because you weren’t posting! :)))

          ***SERBIAN*** — filth! :)

          • Andrew Chimilewsky’s Daddy!

            ** N A – K O L E N A – S U K A … курити член !! **

          • Andrew Chmil

            You must mistake me for your ***SERBIAN*** mama!

            Is she mentally ill like you? 😉

          • Andrew Chimilewsky’s Daddy!

            **ANDREW CHMILEWSKY ** – люблю їсти лайно ?? чому SU KA ?

          • Andrew Chimilewsky’s Daddy!

            ** ANDREW CHMILEWSKY appearing as fake account “ANDREW CHMIL” **

            ** UKRAINIAN SCUMBAG** …. **HATED EVEN BY HIS OWN SON ZENON**

        • Andrew Chmil

          “SCUMBAG*** ….. ** NO HONOR OR SHAME**”

          Horrible what those Ruski did –tried to — to thar ***SERBIAN*** thrash in Montenegro — wasn’t it? :))))

          ***SERB*** SLAVE OF RUSKI !!! :)))
          BEND OVER SOME MORE FOR THEM!!!

          They raped your women WHILE YOU WERE FIGHTING FOR THOSE COMMUNISTS!!! — Your ***SERBIAN*** grandma was RAPED by those monhols ;))

          • Andrew Chimilewsky’s Daddy!

            SCUMBAG: – Українці душевнохворого нацистам … чому SU KA ?

          • Andrew Chimilewsky’s Daddy!

            ** UKRAINIAN RAPIST ** …….ANDREW CHMILEWSKY….. **CHILD ABUSER**

            -https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/4d31fd94e13c09d5af3b073a85407f67e0dfc6395f88d81ea4a2555354f697f6.jpg

  • Murf

    As the saying goes;
    “They can kill you but they can’t eat you.”

  • Roman Serbyn

    What the author calls linguicide is actually part of genocide, especially as it pertains to Stalin’s genocide of the 1930s. It began with the destruction of the Ukrainian intellectual elites which used and developed the Ukrainian language, and then the attack was carried out against the Ukrainian language itself. In December 1932, the 8,000,000 ethnic Ukrainians who lived in the Russian and other Soviet republics, but outside the Ukrainian SSR were forbidden to use it in the public sphere (schools, mass media, local administration). Russification of Ukraine itself was more moderate, slower, and more sophisticated.

    • Andrew Chmil

      Nice points you covered!

    • RedSquareMaidan

      And while they were starving the Ukrainian language, they were also starving Ukrainians. December 1932. “We are not dead yet!”