West backed Forest Brothers in Baltic countries, newly declassified CIA documents show

Image: Latvian Occupation Museum, CIA / Public domain; Lsm.lv collage

Image: Latvian Occupation Museum, CIA / Public domain; Lsm.lv collage 

History, International, More

Many in the Baltic countries and elsewhere still celebrate the US non-recognition policy which specified that Washington would never recognize Stalin’s “forcible incorporation” of the three Baltic states into the USSR, a policy that send a clear message to Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians that they were not alone in their fight for freedom.

But at the same time, some of them have asked over the years why the US did not do more to support the Baltic peoples and their aspirations — even though US policy did not ever promise to take any actions to liberate the three occupied countries, a point Washington was consistent about from 1940 to 1991.

In fact, however, as some newly declassified CIA documents show, the US government not only carefully kept track of “the forest brothers,” as the underground armed resistance to Soviet power there in the late 1940s and early 1950s was known, but provided some limited covert assistance to these groups.

Portions of these documents are being published in Russian translation by the Russian staff of the unified news portal of Latvian Radio and Latvian television. Two selections have been issued (“Тайные архивы ЦРУ. Латвийские «лесные братья» — возникновение, организация, контроль” and “Тайные архивы ЦРУ. Латвийские «лесные братья». Помощь Запада“), and more are promised.

Like the NATO film released about the forest brothers a month ago, these documents have attracted Moscow’s attention. One commentary by Sergey Orlov of Svobodnaya pressa posted online yesterday directly states that with these documents, “the US has acknowledged its role in the support of ‘the [Baltic] forest brothers.’”

In Orlov’s words, the documents show that “the CIA provided the anti-Soviet underground in the Baltic countries organizational and financial help … and from this it follows in particular,” he continues, “that in August 1950, the CIA approved the financing of ‘the forest brothers.’”

“The total sum is not clear,” the Svobodnaya pressa writer says, “but in 1953, 134,950 dollars was devoted to one of the projects for assistance to the anti-Soviet underground. Money was also allocated to the support of anti-Soviet Baltic media beyond the borders of the USSR, he organization of a unity conference in the US, and other goals.”

Orlov does not suggest that the US provided the forest brothers with lethal aid, something he would surely have done if there was anything in the documents to suggest that. But what he does say about the documents may be far more important to an understanding of the complex picture of life in Soviet-occupied Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania at that time.

First, he makes it clear that the Central Intelligence Agency was extremely well-informed about the nature and composition of the forest brothers.

Second, Orlov’s selective quotations indicate that Washington was extremely cautious in taking any steps that might inflame the situation and cause Moscow to crack down even harder than it already did at that time.


And third, Orlov mentions that the Americans were not the only people fishing in these troubled waters at the time. He notes that Stalin’s secret police chief Lavrenty Beriya tried to reach an agreement of some kind with a leader of the anti-Soviet underground in Lithuania whom the NKVD had arrested.

What the two discussed is “unknown,” the commentator says; but after Beria was arrested, interrogated and then shot in 1953, this Lithuanian, Jonas-Vytautas Zemaitis, was shot in Moscow’s Butyrka prison on November 26, 1954, on the basis of a decision by the Supreme Court of the Lithuanian SSR.

Zemaitis is now considered a hero in Lithuania, and there is a monument to him at the Lithuanian defense ministry, Orlov says. But that raises a bigger question: is Orlov’s article really about events of almost 70 years ago, or is it really about the present-day agenda of Moscow which remains interested in destabilizing the situation there.

If the latter – and there is every reason to suspect that – this conclusion suggests Moscow will use the further release and translation of US documents as the occasion not only to try to blacken the reputation of the Americans but also to talk about contacts between Baltic leaders in the past and the Soviet secret services in order to sow discord in the three countries.


Edited by: A. N.

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  1. Avatar Murf says:

    Glad to hear the US at least did something to help the Baltic people.
    As for darkening the US’s reputation; I hope it makes the Russians hate us even more.

    1. Avatar Screwdriver says:

      Those were not historical Russian lands, why should Russians hate somebody for no reason ?

      1. Avatar Dagwood Bumstead says:

        They hate Ukrainians for no reason, old eunuch. And Ukrainian lands aren’t “historical Russian lands” either.

        1. Avatar Screwdriver says:

          Russians can not hate Ukrainians grandpa, because Ukrainians are Russians (except galicians)

          1. Avatar Murf says:

            Still waving the tattered banner of New Russia huh?
            Three years of war in Donbas says otherwise.
            They had to use Russian mercenaries and Federation troops just to hold a sliver.

          2. Avatar Screwdriver says:

            Did you read Ukrainian reports ? They say only about 5000 Russian troops, and 30-40000 “separatists” troops against almost 60000 – 250000 Ukrainian Army.

          3. Avatar Микола Данчук says:

            Those are Kremlin statistics.
            Only 5000 paid mercenaries (calling themselves separatists) and 60000 Russian troops on vacation!

          4. Avatar Murf says:

            Yes I mentioned it several times.
            In addition to 25k Ukraine can call up another 100k ATO combat veterans.
            So Ukraine could steam roller Donbas when ever they feel like it.
            To what end though?
            Donbas has become a hot potato and who ever is holding it is loosing.
            Right now that’s Putin.
            Enjoy your New Russia.

          5. Avatar Brent says:

            and “Novorossiya”, or “Malorussia” or whatever idiotic name you a$$clowns are calling the terrorist occupied lands of Donbass is still no bigger than Delaware….

            Galicia is so much bigger!!!


          6. Avatar Микола Данчук says:

            Just because you say your Jewish doesn’t make you Halal!
            Isn’t that what Israel told you?

          7. Avatar Screwdriver says:

            Хто про Хому, а він про Ярему

          8. Avatar Микола Данчук says:

            А ти про ґельт!

          9. Avatar Brent says:

            Don’t insult Ukrainians! They’ve never been, and will never want to be a bunch of lying thieving toilet cleaning Russo Nazzi’s.

            By the way, Plotnitsky is a “Galician”…..yes, one of those Russo Nazzi terrorists you support!!!

          10. Avatar Screwdriver says:

            Plotnitsky is a “Galician”.
            So you maybe related ? 🙂

          11. Avatar Brent says:

            Even if I was related to him, I would not support his terrorist Russo Nazzi agenda or raise money for his cause like you…

            Did Motorola and Mozgovai ever get the money you were raising for them before they got blown to smithereens? Or did you keep it for yourself?


          12. Avatar Screwdriver says:

            Did you read Pavlo Skoropadski ?

      2. Avatar Murf says:

        Neither is East Prussia and yet there they are.

        1. Avatar Screwdriver says:

          I personally would not mind if Russia gives up East Prussia ( to Germany of course, not Poland)
          But looks like even western style democracies like Ukraine 🙂 , would not give up stolen lands , like Lviv.

          1. Avatar Murf says:

            Ukraine and Poland have resolved their territorial disputes.
            Only Russian Trolls seem to want that Can o’ Worms reopened.
            Mainly so they can justify their own land grabbing.

      3. Avatar Микола Данчук says:

        It’s in your DNA?
        Do Bolsheviks really need reason for anything despicable you do?

      4. Avatar Brent says:

        Why should Russia hate the U.S. and the West so much after being invited into the G8 and WTO?

        Because Putin told the mindless sheeple like yourself to hate! hate! hate!

  2. Avatar Dagwood Bumstead says:

    I can imagine only too well how Beria “discussed” with Zemaitis………

  3. Avatar zorbatheturk says:

    RuSSian evil has a long tail.